An Operating System is a chief component of any computer system. It is a set of a very complex and also very large program that acts as an interface between the computer hardware & its user. OS serves two objectives;
- 1) interpreting the user program instructions to the hardware and
- 2) Providing coordination services necessary to enable a group of users to share computer system resources efficiently.
Need for an OS:
The user has to design the application according to the internal structure of the hardware in earlier days. It ends this and enables the user to design the application without concerning the details of the computer’s internal structure. In general terms, we can say that the boundary between the hardware & software is transparent to the user.
Usage of OS:
- Controlling input and also the output.
- Ease of interaction between the computer and the user.
- Loading and scheduling users program.
- Starting computer operation automatically when we turn on the power.
- Providing good security to the user’s program and their data.
- Managing uses of main memory as well as other resources of the computer
- Controlling program execution and function.
Functions of an Operating System:
The main functions perform by most of the OS are as follow: –
1. Process Management: –
The process management module of an OS takes care of program creation and deletion. It also schedules various system resources to a different process, and OS also synchronizes and communicates among different processes.
2. Memory Management: –
Not only the memory management module of an OS takes cares of the allocation but also cares of reallocation of memory space of the different program in need of this resource.
3. File Management: –
A computer uses a lot of programs and data which we store on secondary storage devices. Moreover, the file management functions of an OS helps in keeping track of all different files. It also maintains the integrity of data stored in the files including the file directory structure.
4. Security: –
The security modules of an OS protect the information and resources of a computer system against destruction or any unauthorized access.
5. Command Interpretation: –
The Command Interpretation module of an OS takes care of interpreting user commands as well as directs the system resources to handle and manage the requests. Henceforth, with this mode of interaction with the system, the users have not to worry much about the hardware details of the system.
6. Input/Output or Device Management: –
Controlling and coordinating various inputs & outputs devices is an important function of the OS. This also involves receiving the request of I/O devices and communicating back those requesting process.
7. Job Control: –
When the user wants to run an application program, he/she must communicate with the OS and tells it what to do. He/she can only do this by using OS job control language or JCL. Lastly, JCL consists of several numbers of Operating Systems commands, called system commands that control the functioning of the OS.
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